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ISO Layers and Protocols

  The ISO–OSI 7 layer Reference Model (officially known as ISO Standard 7498, 1984, 7498-1:1994. and CCITT standard X.200) was developed by the Internet Architecture Board and drafted by the IETF. Memonic ISO-OSI Layers Microsoft TCP/IP Protocol All 7. Application Layer Processes using ports within sockets API (Applications Programming Interface) 4. Application messages or streams […]

10 Pain-Fighting Foods

Your body is under attack—only you probably don’t realize it. You have no symptoms. You feel fine. Everything seems to be operating normally. So what’s the problem? Inflammation. It’s a normal process that is designed to help your body recover, which causes the occasional ache or pain. In small doses, this is fine. But if […]

Empty Calories

What are Empty Calories? baked goods Currently, many of the foods and beverages Americans eat and drink contain empty calories – calories from solid fats and/or added sugars. Solid fats and added sugars add calories to the food but few or no nutrients. For this reason, the calories from solid fats and added sugars in […]

Internet Infrastructure

One of the greatest things about the Internet is that nobody really owns it. It is a global collection of networks, both big and small. These networks connect together in many different ways to form the single entity that we know as the Internet. In fact, the very name comes from this idea of interconnected networks. […]

How Bits and Bytes Work?

Introduction to How Bits and Bytes Work If you have used a computer for more than five minutes, then you have heard the words bits and bytes. Both RAM and hard disk capacities are measured in bytes, as are file sizes when you examine them in a file viewer. You might hear an advertisement that says, “This computer has a 32-bitPentium processor with […]